What types of visual disorders are there?
Most people with a refractive issue have nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), or astigmatism. These can usually be corrected with a laser eye surgery.
Kurzsichtigkeit

Nearsightedness

Weitsichtigkeit

Farsightedness

Hornhautverkrümmung

Astigmatism

Alterssichtigkeit

Presbyopia

Anatomy

The human eye

The human eye is a highly developed sensory and visual organ which can absorb light stimuli and transmit it to the brain for processing. It enables us to perceive information where visible light is present, allowing us to orient ourselves in our environment. In addition to our spatial vision, visual acuity, field of vision, and the perception of colors are of great importance when considering the functions of the human eye.

 As long as the axis length of the eye and its refractive power are balanced, the eye is considered to have ideal vision and does not need a visual correction (an emmetropic eye). With this ideal vision, incident light rays portray a sharp image on the retina.

 

 

Myopia

Nearsightedness

Nearsightedness (also known as myopia) is a disproportion between the length of the eye and the refractive power of the eye’s optical system. If the eye has an extension of 1mm, this would correspond to about three dioptres of nearsightedness.

For a person experiencing nearsightedness, an image is already created in front of the retina, giving off a visual impression that is blurred. If, however, an object such as a book is being viewed at the correct distance from the eye (and also in the vicinity) a sharp image is created. As the name suggest, a nearsighted person can see things that are near, whereas things in the distance are blurred and out of focus.

Kurzsichtigkeit - Eis im Vordergrund und Wasser im Hintergrund
Weitsichtigkeit - Eis im Vordergrund und Wasser im Hintergrund

Hyperopia

Farsightedness

With farsightedness (also known as hyperopia), the eye is too short in comparison to its refractive power. Cases of a lower refractive power of the eye are much rarer. When looking into the distance, the light rays fall almost parallel into the eye and would unite in the eye of a farsighted person only behind the retina to form an image.

Farsighted people keep the book as far away as possible in order to read the words clearly. During youthful years, objects can still be recognized well in the distance – a mechanism called accommodation. Over time, the elasticity of the eye’s lens diminishes causing the compensation of this mechanism to come to a standstill.

Astig­matis­m

Corneal curvature

Corneal curvature (also known as astigmatism causing blurry vision) is a particular refractive error of the eye. The light rays emitted by an object in our field of vision are not bundled into a point along the retina, but are instead constructed into a focal line.
In detail, a ray of light enters the eye parallel to what is known as the optical axis. The light rays are then being refracted in varying degrees. As a rule, one plane of incidence can be determined with a maximum refractive power and one with a minimum refractive power. The difference between these two so-called main points is called the strength of astigmatism.

 

Hornhautverkrümmung - Eis im Vordergrund und Wasser im Hintergrund
Alterssichtigkeit - Eis im Vordergrund und Wasser im Hintergrund

Presbyopia

Age-related vision problems

An age-related visual problem (also known as presbyopia) is the progressive, age-related loss of the eye’s ability to adapt its near vision by means of a mechanism called accommodation. Seeing things sharply in the near vicinity is no longer possible without a suitable correction (e.g. reading glasses).

Presbyopia is not a disease. It is a normal, functional restriction that comes with age and becomes more noticeable from the age of 40. This leads to symptoms such as reading texts at a further distance in order to see clearly. Presbyopia does not influence an already existing visual disorder. It does, however, always require an additional correction for proximity.

Laser eye surgery

Correcting a visual disorder

PRK

The PRK is particularly suitable for patients with thin corneas, since no flap is formed for laser eye treatment. The method is therefore also popular with contact athletes, police and fire fighters.

Femto-LASIK

Femto-LASIK is a parti­cularly gentle eye laser procedure. Due to the formation of the flap, the method is particularly gentle and painless. You can see clearly on the next day.

EVO Visian ICL

The implan­table contact lens is made of Collamer and is placed mini­mally inva­sively and invisibly behind your iris. The EVO Visian ICL is completely rever­sible and can be custo­mized for your ametropia.

CLE – lens exchange

A lens exchange (CLE) is an alter­native treat­ment method for patients with parti­cularly severe ametropia. The body’s own lens is ex­changed for an artificial multi­focal lens.